Estimation Of Entrance Skin Dose And Effective Dose In Cervical Spine X-Ray Procedures



Diagnostic Reference Level, Cervical Spine, Entrance Skin Dose, Effective Dose


The use of ionizing radiation in medical field is the largest and a growing man-made source of radiation exposure. The aim of this study is to estimate the doses received by patients during radiological examinations in order to standardize the examination procedures and optimize the patient dose. Two most referral hospitals, located in the Capital City of Kebbi State, were investigated. The Patients undergoing cervical spine X-ray examinations were involved in this study.  Entrance Skin Dose (ESD) and Effective Dose were calculated using exposure parameters (voltage, tube loading, focus-patient distance). The Cal Dose _X 5.0 software was used to determine ESD and ED. Conversion coefficients were used to relate ESD to the effective dose (ED). A total of 65 radiographic examinations data were collected from the two hospitals during three months of the year 2021 to 2022. The highest ESD (mGy) was found for the lateral cervical view in Sir Yahaya Memorial Hospital, with an average value of 4.12 mGy. The highest value of ED and DRLs was also observed for the AP projection in FMC with an average of 0.27 mSv and 4.73. The ESDs reported in this study are generally higher than value obtained from the research conducted by the Iran, and Brazil, while ED was remarkably high compared to other studies. This trend is an indication that the patient radiation protection practices in these two hospitals need to be justified. The results of this study showed that there is a need for justification and optimization in order to reduce patient radiation dose without affecting the quality of the radiographic image. The data of this work will be useful in contributing to the formulation of regional guidance levels.


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article IJEAP : Estimation Of Entrance Skin Dose And Effective Dose In Cervical Spine X-Ray Procedures




How to Cite

B. SAMAILA, “Estimation Of Entrance Skin Dose And Effective Dose In Cervical Spine X-Ray Procedures”, International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics, vol. 2, no. 3, pp. 549–554, Sep. 2022.