International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics <hr /><hr /> <table style="width: 99.4295%; height: 247px;" width="100%" bgcolor="#f0f0f0"> <tbody> <tr style="height: 247px;" valign="top"> <td style="width: 17.9083%; height: 247px;"> <p><br /> Journal title<br /> Initials<br /> Frequency<br /> ISSN<br /> CODEN<br />Affiliation<br /> Email<br /><br /></p> </td> <td style="width: 59.8854%; height: 247px;"> <p><br />: <strong>International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics</strong> <br />: <strong>Int J Eng and Appl Phys</strong><br />: <strong>3 issues per year (January, May, September)</strong><br />: <strong>2737-8071</strong><strong><br /></strong>: <strong>IJEAE7</strong><br />: <strong>Chouaib Doukkali University, Morocco</strong><br />: <strong><a href=""></a><br /></strong><strong><br /></strong></p> </td> <td style="width: 20.7736%; height: 247px;"> <img src="" alt="International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics Cover" width="1414" height="2000" /></td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <hr /><hr /> <div align="justify"> <p><strong>The International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics (IJEAP)</strong>, is an international academic open access journal which gains a foothold and opens to the world. Scope of the journal includes but not limited to applied physics and applied mathematics, automation and control, biomedical engineering, chemical engineering, civil engineering, computer engineering, computer science, data engineering and software engineering, earth and environmental engineering, electrical engineering, industrial engineering and operations research, information technology and informatics, materials science, measurement and metrology, mechanical engineering, medical physics, power engineering, signal processing and telecommunications.<br />The IJEAP journal aims for a publication speed of 90 days from submission until final publication. IJEAP uses the LOCKSS archival system and cited in Google Scholar, ASI database, DRJI, ResearchBib, Citefactor, WorldCat, BASE and EuroPub.</p> </div> IJEAP en-US International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics 2737-8071 <p>Copyright on any article in the <em><strong>International Journal of Engineering and Applied Physics</strong></em> is retained by the author(s) under the <strong><a title="ijeap Creative Commons license" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Creative Commons license</a></strong>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction provided the original work is properly cited.</p> <h2>License agreement</h2> <p>Authors grant IJEAP a license to publish the article and identify IJEAP as the original publisher.</p> <p>Authors also grant any third party the right to use, distribute and reproduce the article in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</p> The effectiveness of fiber-filled concrete : The application of an old technique to solve a modern problem <p>Using an analogy between the conduction of electricity and the conduction of heat, a thermal problem has been recast in terms of an electrical circuit, facilitating the variation of physical properties. The electrical model provided an answer to the question of ‘what is the effect of different fiber additives on the conduction of heat in a typical concrete floor?’. The model used an amount of heat energy, representative of that collected during one day on a photovoltaic cell of area 1 m2 located at 45 degrees North and was applied to heating coils laid between the sub-floor and main floor. Quantitative results are presented for the case of a steel fiber (SF) additive compared to a glass fiber (GF) additive. The SF additive conducted the heat more efficiently than the GF additive but the delay in peak outputs was similar. The results are an essential first step in a cost benefit analysis.</p> John Armitage Copyright (c) 2022 John Armitage 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 413 421 Application of Constrained Nonlinear Minimization to Estimate Parameters of Transmission Line in Power System <p>One of the essential components of power systems is the transmission line. It is used in the power system to transfer electricity energy from generation units to load units. Modern transmission line is a complex interconnected network. The mathematical model of transmission line is in nonlinear equations. This paper applied the constrained nonlinear minimization to estimate parameters of transmission line in power system. The great advantage in this proposed method is that the data of the Phase Measurement Unit (PMU) is not required. The ready data at power substations voltage magnitude(<em>V</em>), active (<em>P</em>) and reactive power (<em>Q</em>) is incorporated into mathematical model to estimate the parameters. The various methods of nonlinear iterative available in MATLAB toolbox such as <em>fsolve</em>, <em>fmin</em>, and <em>fmincon</em> are also compared in this paper.</p> Prechanon Kumkratug Copyright (c) 2022 Prechanon Kumkratug 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 422 426 Human Machine Interface for monitoring a winding machine <p>The monitoring function that we are developing is part of an overall monitoring process. It aims, on the basis of the information available on its operating modes, to detect, locate and diagnose failures that may affect its performance and operational safety. The purpose of this paper is to carry out a method for monitoring an automated system based on a Human Machine Interface (HMI). The purpose of monitoring task is the detection and the rapid localization of faults in order to minimize the average system downtime. Finally, we illustrate the implementation of the proposed supervision approach on a winding machine in order to monitor the bobbins quality.</p> Anis Mhalla Copyright (c) 2022 Anis Mhalla 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 427 434 The Effect of soil temperature on the ampacity values of underground cables in Jalingo, North – East Nigeria <p>Cables are like bridges that connects the machine that generate electricity and the appliances that uses it. Electrical cable can be a single conductor (solid or stranded) insulated through its full length; or several conductors spread together with each given its insulation under one outer protective covering. Electricity flowing in a conductor generates heat. A resistance to heat flow between the cable and the ambient environment causes the cable’s temperature to rise. This work examined the effect of soil temperature on the current rating of a Cross Link Polyethylene Low Voltage Cable laid in three power substations in Jalingo, Taraba State. The findings revealed a mean soil temperature and ampacity value of 95.25 <sup>o</sup>C and 245.12 A for coarse soil, 95.06 <sup>o</sup>C and 318.90 A for clay soil and 94.8 <sup>o</sup>C and 318.70 A for loamy soils. Comparison of the ampacity values of the different soils with the standard value of 320 A, the current rating of the cable is reduced by 74.88 A, 1.1 A and 1.3 A respectively for coarse, clay and loamy soils. Results also indicated that the current rating of the cables laid on loamy soil is 1.3 times greater than that on coarse soil at their respective temperatures. The study suggested that clay and loamy soil are suitable materials for local backfilling, while coarse soil is not.</p> Terkaa Victor Targema Maxwell Obia Kanu Gabriel W. Joseph Anuye Yohanna Copyright (c) 2022 Terkaa Victor Targema, Kanu Maxwell Obia, Gabriel W. Joseph, Anuye Yohanna 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 435 443 Biogas production according to the waste categories <p>The aim of the present work is to model the production of a biogas according to the different categories of the biodegradable materials. The simulation model that predicts biogas production from a plug-flow anaerobic digester is developed. This model is based on the kinetic equation of the methanization. A first-order kinetic model is used to predict the chemical reactions in the digestion process. A model prediction is validated against Numerical simulation measured biogas production and data which are obtained from the literature.</p> Hassan asnaoui Mohammed Khalis Zouheir Amraoui Lahcen Ait-Mlouk Copyright (c) 2022 Hassan asnaoui, Mohammed Khalis, Zouheir Amraoui , Lahcen Ait-Mlouk 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 444 447 A Survey on Various Brain MR Image Segmentation Techniques <p>Prior to medical image analysis, segmentation is an essential step in the preprocessing process. Partitioning an image into distinct regions based on characteristics like texture, color, and intensity is its primary goal. Numerous applications include tumor and coronary border recognition, surgical planning, tumor volume measurement, blood cell classification and heart image extraction from cardiac cine angiograms are all made possible by this technique. Many segmentation methods have been proposed recently for medical images. Thresholding, region-based, edge-based, clustering-based and fuzzy based methods are the most important segmentation processes in medical image analysis. A variety of image segmentation methods have been developed by researchers for efficient analysis. An overview of widely used image segmentation methods, along with their benefits and drawbacks, is provided in this paper.</p> Neetu Nishi Pande Abhishek Agvekar Copyright (c) 2022 Neetu, Nishi Pande, Abhishek Agvekar 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 448 456 Study of Environmental Pollution Rustling from Balhaf Liquid Natural Gas Station Using Spectroscopy Analysis, Shabwah Governorate – Yemen <p>The present work aimed to determine the contaminants in soil resulting due to emissions that come from natural gas in the station of Balhaf which is it LNG project in Shabowah Gov, Republic of Yemen. Total 20 samples soil samples were collected at depth of approximately (0-10 cm) from different locations from the Balhaf natural gas station. These samples were analyzed by Laser Breakdown Plasma Spectroscopy (LIBS) to determine the samples toxic elements. The components of the toxic elements present in the soil samples were further confirmed by spectroscopic technique induced coupled plasma (ICP) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The LIBS spectra showed the presence of different amounts of elements, including radioactive and toxic elements such as (Ac, Pu, Th, U) and (Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Tl, Zn), in all of the soil samples. The concentrations of the elements were calculated by ICP spectroscopy. The average concentrations of elements in the samples appeared to be 410 ppb for Al, 1.9 ppb for Ba, 2.6 ppb for Cd,2.7 ppb for Co, 2.3 ppb for Cr, 257 ppb for Cu, 30 ppb for Mn, 6,8 ppb for Ni, 63 ppb for Th, 56 ppb for Tl and 6.1 ppb for Zn, but these values did not exceed normal levels for these elements in earth crust according to reference values such as ATSDR 2020, IAEA, 200. The presence of a high concentration of toxic elements in the soil around the natural gas facility, that indicates the presence of emissions from this facility that leads to the accumulation of these elements in the soil.</p> Khaled Laqal Siddig Tawaer Kafi yousif alsabah Abobakr A. M. Salem Copyright (c) 2022 Khaled Laqal, Siddig Tawaer Kafi, yousif alsabah, Abobakr A. M. Salem 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 457 465 Ghost Dark Energy with Variable Gravitational Constant <p>In a bid to resolve lingering problems in modern Cosmology, Cosmologist are turning to models in which Physical constants of nature are not real constants but vary as function of the scale factor of the universe. In this work, a cosmological model is developed by incorporating Ghost Dark Energy model with Barrow's ansatz for varying Gravitational Constant. A model obtained is free from initial Big Bang Singularity and Inflation Problem. A test of Causality showed that the model depends of the constant m and is classically stable at&nbsp; -6 &gt; m &gt; -3.</p> Gabriel Joseph Copyright (c) 2022 Gabriel Joseph 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 466 471 Brain Tumour Detection and Classffication Using CNN <p>The goal of this study is to find brain tumours and give better care to those who have them. Tumours are abnormal growths of cells in the brain, and cancer is the word for a type of malignant tumour. Most of the time, CT or MRI scans are used to find areas of cancer in the brain. Positron Emission Tomography, Cerebral Arteriogram, Lumbar Puncture, and Molecular testing are also used to find brain tumours. In this study, the dataset has 253 Brain MRI images in two folders called "yes" and "no". The "yes" folder has 155 Brain MRI images of tumours, while the "no" folder has 98 Brain MRI non-tumour images. For classification and segmentation of preprocessing augmented data set we use novel CNN architecture in this paper we have achieved a Training accuracy is 98.75% and the validation accuracy is 86.45%. The novel CNN architecture could be used as a useful decision-support tool for radiologists in medical diagnostics.</p> Neetu Nagar Nishi Pandey Abhishek Agwekar Copyright (c) 2022 Neetu Nagar, Nishi Pandey, Abhishek Agwekar 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 472 479 Evaluating the performance of online simulation tools for grid-connected rooftop solar systems in Baghdad, Iraq <p>The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the technical performance of a 6.4kW grid-connected rooftop PV system in the capital city of Iraq. Four simulation tools, namely, PV*SOL. PVGIS, PVWatts, and RETScreen are employed to assess the potential of solar energy in the selected city. The performance of these simulations is compared by calculating the capacity factor and performance ratio. The results demonstrated that RETScreen software could be considered reliable software and easy to use compared to other simulation tools.</p> YOUSSEF KASSEM Hüseyin Gökçeku? Qand Abbas Salih Furaiji Copyright (c) 2022 YOUSSEF KASSEM, Hüseyin Gökçeku?, Qand Abbas Salih Furaiji 2022-05-24 2022-05-24 2 2 480 491